From January through July of 2009, I took part in two study-abroad programs as part of my curriculum in the graduate architecture school at Washington University in St. Louis. The spring semester, from late January to late May, was based in Helsinki, Finland, while the summer program, from the beginning of June to the end of July, took place in Barcelona. Both programs were enormously eye-opening experiences for me; I got to see seven countries in Europe that I had never visited before (Finland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, France, Spain, and the Netherlands) and learned a great deal both from the buildings and landscapes I encountered and from the wisdom of my teachers.

I took a total of over 26,000 photographs over those six months, none of which I have published online except on this website. My intent here is to share the highlights of the photographs in a sort of photo-diary format, similar to the gallery section of my Switzerland 2005 site. This site's background is black in order for the photographs to show up as well as possible.

In addition, as with Switzerland, I have scanned and transcribed in HTML all the entries I made in my handwritten nature journal over the course of these programs. That and all the photo pages are accessible at once from the navigation bar at left and the table of contents below. The table of contents also shows the dates of all the gallery pages at a glance.

As of July 20, 2013 — just shy of four years after my return from the trip and over 3 1/2 years since starting work on this website — the site is finally substantially complete, notwithstanding continued correction of typos and factual errors.

As of April 2023, I have updated the appearance of the site for better accessibility and mobile responsiveness, as well as completely rebuilt the site's back-end codebase to improve efficiency and make it more maintainable.

If you want to jump straight into the photo pages, the first one concerns my arrival in Helsinki.

Table of Contents


Nature journal


Introduction to Helsinki

January 23–29:arrival in Helsinki

January 31:Kallio – approach; church

January 31:Kallio – around town; the way home

February 3–5:miscellaneous


February 6:trip to Utö

February 7:Utö – misty introduction

February 8:Utö – tour + night shots

February 9:Utö – sun + moon

February 10:Utö – Stenhuset

February 10:Utö – sunsnow

February 11–12:Utö – site + lighthouse

February 13:Utö – cold day

February 14:Utö – last full day

February 15:trip back from Utö

Helsinki late winter

February 17:miscellaneous

February 18:Helsinki history tour

February 18–24:miscellaneous

February 25:Aalto studio, Munkkiniemi

February 25:Aalto house, Munkkiniemi

February 25 – March 7:miscellaneous

March 8–15:miscellaneous

March 15:Laajasalo

March 15–22:miscellaneous


March 23–24:Helsinki to Rovaniemi

March 24:Rovaniemi

March 24:Rovaniemi to Inari

March 25:Ski to Pielpajärvi

March 25:Pielpajärven kirkko

March 25:Ski from Pielpajärvi

March 26:SIIDA

March 26:Inari to Bugøynes

March 27:Bugøynes morning

March 27:Bugøynes harbor

March 27:Bugøynes hill

March 27:Bugøynes evening

March 28:Bugøynes to Inari

March 28:Inari to Rovaniemi

March 28–29:Rovaniemi to Helsinki

S. Finland post-equinox

March 31:Tapiola 1

March 31 – April 1:Tapiola 2

April 2:Trip to Hämeenlinna

April 2:Hämeen Linna 1

April 2:Hämeen Linna 2

April 2:Hämeenlinna arts


April 3–4:trip to Stockholm

April 4:Drottninggatan

April 4:Stadsbibliotek

April 4:Markuskyrkan

April 4:Skogskyrkogården 1

April 4:Skogskyrkogården 2

April 4:Gamla Stan

April 4:Stockholm downtown

April 4:Stadshuset evening

April 4:Riddarholmskyrkan evening

April 5:Riddarholmskyrkan morning

April 5:Stadshuset morning 1

April 5:Stadshuset morning 2

April 5:Skeppsholmen

April 5:Swedish seashore

April 5:Sunset + Åland

April 6:Helsinki landing

Helsinki early April

April 6–10:miscellaneous

April 11:Temppeliaukio

April 11:Korkeasaari 1

April 11:Korkeasaari 2

April 11:fog sunset

April 14–15:miscellaneous


April 16:trip to Tallinn 1

April 16:trip to Tallinn 2

April 16:Tallinn – Oleviste kirik 1

April 16:Tallinn – Oleviste kirik 2

April 16:Tallinn – Vabaõhumuuseum 1

April 16:Tallinn – Vabaõhumuuseum 2

April 16:Tallinn – across town

April 16:Tallinn – KUMU

April 16:Tallinn – Vanalinn 1

April 16:Tallinn – Vanalinn 2

April 16:Tallinn – Vanalinn 3

April 16:Tallinn – trip back

Helsinki late April

April 17–19:miscellaneous

April 19:Katajanokka to Tervasaari

April 19:Tervasaari

April 19:Katajanokka Jugend 1

April 19:Katajanokka Jugend 2

April 20–21:TKK sunset

April 22:Lansiväylä

Southern Finland tour

April 23:Southern Finland tour – setting off

April 23:Southern Finland tour – Paimio Sanatorium 1

April 23:Southern Finland tour – Paimio Sanatorium 2

April 23:Southern Finland tour – Turku Cathedral

April 23:Southern Finland tour – Åbo Akademi

April 23:Southern Finland tour – Chapel of the Holy Cross, Turku

April 23:Southern Finland tour – Chapel of the Resurrection, Turku

April 23:Southern Finland tour – Art Chapel, Turku

April 23:Southern Finland tour – Forum Marinum, Turku

April 23:Southern Finland tour – Turku Main Library

April 23–24:Southern Finland tour – Turku downtown

April 24:Southern Finland tour – Turun Linna 1

April 24:Southern Finland tour – Turun Linna 2

April 24:Southern Finland tour – Rauma

April 24:Southern Finland tour – Villa Mairea

April 24:Southern Finland tour – arrival in Tampere

April 25:Southern Finland tour – Metso, Tampere

April 25:Southern Finland tour – Tampere Cathedral

April 25:Southern Finland tour – Kaleva Church, Tampere

April 25:Southern Finland tour – departure from Tampere

April 25:Southern Finland tour – Petäjäveden kirkko 1

April 25:Southern Finland tour – Petäjäveden kirkko 2

April 25–26:Southern Finland tour – Jyväskylä

April 26:Southern Finland tour – Jyväskylä University 1

April 26:Southern Finland tour – Jyväskylä University 2

April 26:Southern Finland tour – Säynätsalo 1

April 26:Southern Finland tour – Säynätsalo 2

April 26:Southern Finland tour – Muuratsalo 1

April 26:Southern Finland tour – Muuratsalo 2

Uusimaa May

April 28–30:Vappu Eve

May 1:Vappu night

May 1:Vappu

May 1–3:miscellaneous

May 4:Viikki Church

May 4:Viikki housing

May 4–11:miscellaneous

May 12:trip to Porvoo

May 12:Porvoo old town

May 12:Porvoo cathedral

May 12:Porvoo new town

May 12:Olympic Tower

May 13:Uspenski Cathedral

May 13:white night

May 14:Nuuksio 1

May 14:Nuuksio 2

May 14:Nuuksio 3

May 14:evening run

May 15:miscellaneous

May 16:shore sunset

May 16:sauna

Return to Utö

May 17:departure from Helsinki

May 17:trip to Utö – bus

May 17:trip to Utö – ferry 1

May 17:trip to Utö – ferry 2

May 17:Utö – sunset

May 18:Utö – sun

May 18:Utö – clouds

May 19:Utö – clearing fog

May 20:Utö – shore walk

May 21:Utö – foggy morning

May 21:Utö – south shore

May 21:Utö – Kattrumpan

May 21:Utö – bench tour 1

May 21:Utö – bench tour 2


Finland + Sweden

May 22:Utö – sunrise

May 22:Utö to Turku

May 22:around Turku 1

May 22:Turun Linna

May 22:around Turku 2

May 22:Turku to Stockholm

May 23:Norrmalm 1

May 23:Norrmalm 2

May 23:Södermalm

May 23:Stockholm to Malmö

May 23:Malmö – Inre Hamnen

May 23:Malmö – Hamnkanalen

May 23:Malmöhus 1

May 23:Malmöhus 2

May 23:Malmö – Gamla Staden

May 23–24:Malmö to Berlin


May 24:Berlin – Hauptbahnhof + Reichstag

May 24:Berlin Mitte

May 24:Berlin – Tiergarten

May 24:Berlin – Siegessäule

May 24:Berlin – Moabit

May 24:Berlin to Bamberg

May 24:Bamberg evening 1

May 24:Bamberg evening 2

May 25:Bamberg – Inselstadt 1

May 25:Bamberg – Domplatz 1

May 25:Bamberger Dom 1

May 25:Bamberger Dom 2

May 25:Bamberg – to Obere Pfarre

May 25:Bamberg – Obere Pfarre

May 25:Bamberg – Karmelitenkirche

May 25:Bamberg – Jakobskirche

May 25:Bamberg – Michelsberg 1

May 25:Bamberg – Michelsberg 2

May 25:Bamberg – Michelsberg to Domplatz

May 25:Bamberg – Domplatz 2

May 25:Bamberg – Inselstadt 2

May 25:Bamberg – Erlöserkirche 1

May 25:Bamberg – Erlöserkirche 2

May 26:Bamberg morning

May 26:Bamberg to Bodensee


May 26:Bodensee to Klosters

May 26:Flüelapass

May 26:arrival in Zernez

May 27:Zernez morning 1

May 27:Sent – to church

May 27:Sent – to northeast

May 27:Sent – around the village

May 27:Sent to Zernez via Klosters

May 27:Zernez afternoon

May 27:Zernez evening 1

May 28:Zernez morning 2

May 28:trip to Ramosch

May 28:hike to Vnà

May 28:Vnà 1

May 28:Vnà 2

May 28:Vnà 3

May 28:Vnà church

May 28:hike down from Vnà

May 28:Ramosch

May 28:ride to Tarasp Vulpera

May 28:Tarasp Vulpera

May 28:hike to Tarasp Fontana

May 28:Tarasp Fontana 1

May 28:Tarasp Fontana church

May 28:Tarasp Fontana 2

May 28:hike through Tarasp Chaposch + Valatscha

May 28:hike down to En

May 28:hike from En to Ardez

May 28:Ardez

May 28:Ardez to Zernez

May 28:Zernez church 1

May 28:Zernez church 2

May 28:Zernez evening 2

May 28:Zernez evening 3

May 29:departure from Zernez

May 29:Klosters to Zürich

May 29:Romandie

France + Spain

May 29:Geneva to Avignon

May 29:Avignon evening 1

May 29:Avignon evening 2

May 30:around Avignon 1

May 30:Palais des Papes

May 30:Rocher des Doms

May 30:around Avignon 2

May 30:around Avignon 3

May 30:around Avignon 4

May 30:Avignon to coast

May 30:French Pyrenees

May 30:arrival in Spain

May 30:ride to Barcelona

May 30:arrival in Barcelona


Main session

May 31:MACBA

May 31:beach

June 1:miscellaneous

June 2:Plaça de Jaume Sabartés

June 2–4:rooftop daytime 1

June 6:Vila Olímpica

June 6:Parc Diagonal Mar

June 6:Badalona

June 6:miscellaneous

June 7–9:miscellaneous

June 10:Museu Picasso

June 10–14:rooftop party

June 15:Miralles office + CCCB

June 16:German Pavilion + CaixaForum

June 17–19:metro construction

June 23:Verbenas de Sant Joan

June 26–29:trip to Igualada

June 29:Igualada Cemetery 1

June 29:Igualada Cemetery 2

June 29:Igualada Cemetery 3

June 29:return from Igualada

July 4–9:Tour de France

July 10–17:rooftop evening

July 17:rooftop twilight

July 19:rooftop daytime 2


July 20:Amsterdam arrival 1

July 20:Amsterdam arrival 2

July 20:Amsterdam arrival 3

July 20:Amsterdam – boat tour 1

July 20:Amsterdam – boat tour 2

July 20:Amsterdam evening

July 21:Amsterdam morning

July 21:Amsterdam – Het Schip 1

July 21:Amsterdam – Het Schip 2

July 21:Amsterdam – Westerpark

July 21:Amsterdam – Plan Zuid 1

July 22:trip to Rotterdam

July 22:around Rotterdam 1

July 22:around Rotterdam 2

July 22:Rotterdam – Architectuurinstituut 1

July 22:Rotterdam – Huis Sonneveld

July 22:Rotterdam – Architectuurinstituut 2

July 22:Rotterdam – Kunsthal

July 22:departure from Rotterdam

July 22:Amsterdam – Plan Zuid 2

July 22:Amsterdam – Plan Zuid 3

July 22–23:Amsterdam – evening + hostel

July 23:Amsterdam – Beurs 1

July 23:Amsterdam – Beurs 2

July 23:Amsterdam – Beurs 3

July 23:Amsterdam Centrum

July 23:ride to Schiphol

July 23:flight from Amsterdam

Barcelona final week

July 25:walk to Palau Nacional

July 25:Palau Nacional 1

July 25:Palau Nacional 2

July 25:walk from Palau Nacional

July 26:walk to Castell de Montjuïc – through Poble Sec

July 26:walk to Castell de Montjuïc – Mirador de l'Alcalde

July 26:Castell perimeter 1

July 26:Castell perimeter 2

July 26:Castell perimeter 3

July 26:Castell de Montjuïc 1

July 26:Castell de Montjuïc 2

July 26:Castell de Montjuïc 3

July 26:Castell de Montjuïc 4

July 26:walk from Castell de Montjuïc – Mirador de l'Alcalde

July 26:walk from Castell de Montjuïc – through Poble Sec

July 27:walk to Park Güell

July 27:Park Güell 1

July 27:Park Güell 2

July 27:Park Güell 3

July 27:Gràcia

July 27:Passeig de Gràcia

July 27:Casa Amatller

July 27:into Ciutat Vella

July 27:Catedral + Roman Quarter

July 27:Roman Quarter

July 27:walk to Santa Maria del Mar

July 27:Santa Maria del Mar

July 27:walk to Palau Güell

July 27:Palau Güell

July 28:walk to Fundació Joan Miró

July 28:Fundació Joan Miró

July 28:walk from Fundació Joan Miró

July 29:departure from Barcelona